Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius wrote his famous "Meditations" during his campaigns against the barbarian invaders. Composed among the reeds and mists of the swampy Danube, his private journals record the passing thoughts, maxims, and musings on life and death of a sensitive and humble mind trained in the Stoic philosophy which, to a certain extent, anticipated the development of Christianity. Philosophy was both a religion and a guiding force for Marcus Aurelius. His is a transitional phase of thought in Stoic philosophy, where diffidence and willingness to recognize failure have replaced assurance and self-sufficiency. Instead of the Stoic virtue of pride Marcus Aurelius appears to anticipate Christian humility.